The Concept of Atoms and Dalton Atomism
[i] Positive Electrons or Nuclei of Atoms
[ii] Electrons Outside the Nucleus
|Atomic Structure Diagram|
Structure of Nucleus
Nature of the Nuclear Ball
Atomic Number and Mass Number
Atomic Number: – The total number of positive electrons located in the nucleus of an element’s atom, called the atomic number or an atomic number of that element.
Since the number of positive electrons in each proton is one unit; Therefore, the total number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is that atomic number. The atomic number is expressed by the letter ‘Z’.
Mass Number:- The total number of protons and neutrons located in the nucleus of an atom of an element called the mass of that element or atom. That is mass = proton number + number of neutrons. The mass is expressed with the letter ‘A’.
- Relationship between mass numbers and atomic numbers: – If an atom of an element has a P-number of protons and an N-number of neutrons,
- Atomic mass (A) = proton-number (P) + neutron-number (N)
- Since, proton-number (P) = atomic-number (Z)
- Therefore, the mass (A) = atomic-number (Z) + neutron-number (N) or Z = A – N
- An atomic number of oxygen (Z) = 8 and mass-number (A) = 16; So oxygen is released by writing 8O16.
- Atomic mass: – The mass of a carbon-12 (6 C12) atom is 12 times as large as any other mass of a C-12 atom in another element. That is
- The atomic mass of element = mass of 1 atom of element / 1 / 12th of the mass of the C-12 atom.
- Since the atomic mass of the two ratios is proportional, the atomic mass of the element is just a singular number.
Distribution of Electrons in K, L, M, N Cells
 The electrons rotate around the nucleus in a circular and elliptical orbit of increasing radius, concentrated at a vacuum, but at different points. The nucleus or nucleus of the atom is located at any one of the focuses of the ellipse.
 Electrons can orbit the nucleus in a total of 7 specific orbitals. These orbits are called the main energy levels or quantum shells. During orbit, the electrons do not radiate any energy, their average energy is fixed. The number by which the quantum level is expressed is called the main quantum number (n). The value of n indicates the strength of the electron cell. According to the increasing distance from the nucleus, these orbits are K (n = 1), L (n = 2), M (n = 3), N (n = 4), O (n = 5), P (n = 6) and Q (n = 7) is called the orbit.
 The maximum number of electrons in each cell is fixed. This number is 2 x n2, where n is the main quantum number. n = 1, 2, 3, 4 …. etc. According to this rule, the maximum number of electrons can be 2 in K cell, 8 in L cell, 18 in M cell, 32 in N cell.
 Regardless of the number of orbitals, there may never be more than 8 electrons in the outermost cell of an atom or the main energy source.
 In elemental cells that have 8 electrons in the outer cell (exception: 2 in the case of helium), the atoms are very stable. These elements are called inactive elements. For example – Neon, Argon, Xenon etc. These elements do not easily participate in chemical reactions.
Atom Nucleus Definition
The only element is known if the atomic number (or proton number) is known, but if its origin is parallel to that element, its nucleus cannot be identified. Because the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom of the same element is the same, the number of neutrons varies. That is, the mass of the element (proton + neutron) of the element is different. Therefore, to identify a nucleus, it is necessary to know the atomic number (Z) and mass (A) of that element. Atoms with a fixed atomic number (proton number) and mass (proton + neutron) are called nucleids. Such as: 1H1, 1H2, 1H3, 8O16, 8O17, 8O18, 17C35, 17C37, etc. Each is a nuclide.
Ion and cation
[ 1 ] Ion: – In general, any atom is in motion. That is, the number of protons in the atom = the number of electrons. When one or more electrons are taken from the outermost cell of an atom, that atom becomes an electron. This electron is called an ion . Ions are more stable than atoms.
[ 2 ] Cation: – one or more electrons from an atom, the atom is devoid of the positive taritgrastha kyatayane is turned. Such as – Na – e → Na +; Ca – 2e → Ca ++ etc.
[ 3 ] Anion: – If you receive any of the atoms of one or more electrons are negative taritgrastha ayanayana is turned. E.g., Cl + e → Cl-; S + 2e → S = et al.
[ 4 ] Travel Ionic example: – That is more than the sum of the atom, and testing may be taritgrastha yemana – ammonium (NH + 4) ion, nitrate (NO-3) ions and so on.
Isotopes are defined as different atoms of an element whose atomic numbers, ie, the number of protons, are different but the mass of the atoms, which is the number of neutrons in the nucleus, is different, they are called Isotopes.
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