Glacier Works and Classification of Glacier

In this post, we shall learn about Glacier Works and Classification of Glacier. Before reading this article just look at below what we are going to cover today.

Glacier Works and Classification of Glacier
Glacier Works and Classification

Glacier Works

Very cold in two polar regions of the earth and high mountains. Snowflakes and glaciers can be seen in these areas. For extreme winters, the mountain’s apex and the polar atmosphere’s aquifer vaporizes throughout the year. The main function of glaciers in the hills is to degrade [the land] and carry the decaying rock. The main function of the glacier after the descent from the hills is to collect rock crushed and gravel stones, ie sedimentation or storage.



Snow Line

In the intense cold conditions of the polar regions and highlands, the frost borders on the frost where the snow accumulates throughout the year for maximum cooling, and the snow melts in the lower heat. On the glacier lies the evergreen snowflake. It is always snowing instead of raining above the glacier. Due to the constant storage and reciprocal pressure, the primary loose ice particles gradually become solid and turn to ice.

The glaciers do not stay at the same altitude everywhere in the world. The freezing limit depends on the latitude, elevation and volume of water vapour. In the Himalayas sea level in the polar regions, the glacier is 5 m high in the equatorial region, 5 m high in the eastern Himalaya, 5 m in the western Himalaya, 20 m high in the central Alps mountain and 5 m high in the Andes and Kilimanjaro mountains. In these regions, snow is frozen all year long above the glacier.



What is Glacier ?

Snowflake above the glacier. The snow that falls there is loose in the first place. In French, it is called Neve. These snowflakes gradually merge with each other and turn into ice sheets. Gradually, more and more jams form and form ice piles, increasing in size. Then some of the below ice melts under its own pressure and the heat of the ice when the ice stack slowly drops down the impact of the earth’s gravitational force on the slopes of the mountain. This moving iceberg is called the glacier. The glacier is actually an icy river. Glaciers are not as dynamic as a river. Glacier speed is only a few centimetres a day.

  • Example: The Jamuna River originated from the Yamunotri Glacier.


Glacier Expansion (Avalanche)

Under the influence of the earth’s gravitational force, the snow on the glacier in the mountainous terrain begins to drop slowly down the slope of the mountain. Occasionally falling from the glacier, falling on the slopes of the mountains, it can be seen that the huge iceberg collapses and falls downward at high velocity, it is called the glacier. Due to the large size of the glacier population, earthquakes were created in the vicinity and the houses, plants etc. were destroyed along the way.



Classification of Glacier

There are mainly three types of glaciers, namely- (a) Valley Glacier or Mountain Glacier (b) Continental Glacier (c) Piedmont Glacier.

(a) Valley Glacier or Mountain Glacier: The glaciers created by the snowfall for extreme cold in the high mountains, and the glaciers that restrict their flow to the mountain valleys, are called glaciers or valley glaciers.

  • Examples: – (1) Siachen Glacier (12 km in length) in the Karakoram north of the Himalayas; Biafo (5 km) and Bolero (3 km), Hispar (3 km) and Batura (3 km); (2) Gangotri Glacier of Kumayun Himalaya (length 5 km originated from this glacier), Kedarnath (5 km) Jemu Glacier of Kanchan Junga (length of 21 km from Teesta river) and other Himalayan valley glaciers.

(b) Continental Glacier: The continental glacier that is located across a wide area of ​​the continent is called Continental Glacier. The continental glacier is actually the largest ice layer seen throughout the Sumeru and Kumerau regions. During the Ice Age, many regions of the continents were covered by ice layers. Continuous glacier expansion of the continental glacier has been concentrated in two polar regions, with the gradual rise of the Earth’s atmosphere.

  • Example: The Lambert Glacier in Antarctica is the longest continental glacier in the world. Similar avalanches are seen in Greenland.

(c) Piedmont Glacier: When a glacier descends from a high mountain and resides across a large area at the foot of the mountain, it is called the Piedmont Glacier. At high altitudes, the footprint of the highlands is low, and the foot glaciation is easily created.

  • Example: Alaska’s Malaspina Glacier is a notable example of the largest foot glacier in the world, spanning an area of about 3,000 square kilometres.


As a Result of Glacial Erosion

Bergschrund: Bergschurnd is one of the most common types of earthworms created by glacial erosion. When the glacier starts descending down the high hills, cracks sometimes form between the uneven mountain creeks and the glaciers, all these cracks are called BerglundBerglund is only seen in summer. At other times of the year, these cracks are covered by thin snow, so their presence is not known from above. For this reason, sometimes the bergschrunds become an extreme danger to mountaineers.

Crevasses: Crevasses are one of the most common types of earthworms created by glacial erosion. As glaciers begin to descend below the high hills, cracks sometimes form between uneven mountain ridges and glaciers. The crevasses are called crevasses when they catch a few cracks in the glacier. If the glacier flows through the slopes of the same slopes, the crevasses do not occur. But when the slope of the glacier valley increases, the speed difference between the different parts of the glacier varies. As a result, the surface of the glacier is drawn, then the crevasses are formed.

Cirque or Corrie: Cirque or Corrie is one of the most common types of earthworms created by glacial erosion. Due to excessive glacier pressure and friction, the upper part of the valley is very steep and in the middle part a lot of debris is created. Due to glacial erosion, the shape of the entire valley looks much like a deck chair without a handle. Such shaped valleys are called Cirque in French and Kum or Corrie in English. In the valley glacier source, erosion caused erosion. The SAARC is not seen as long as the valley is pressed into the glacier, the SAARC is visible only if the valley is snowed.

Arete: Arte [Arete] is one of the types of earthworms that are created by erosion. Due to excessive glacier pressure and friction, the upper part of the valley is very steep and in the middle part a lot of debris is created. Due to glacial erosion, the shape of the entire valley looks much like a deck chair without a handle. Such shaped valleys are called Cirque [Cirque] in French and Kum [Cumbe, Cwm] or Corrie in English. In the valley glacier source, erosion caused erosion. Also, the creek between the two circuits is called the Arete. The top of the arete has a lot of groove-like grooves.

Pyramidal Peak: Pyramidal Peak is one of the most common types of earthworms created by glacial erosion. Due to excessive glacier pressure and friction, the upper part of the valley is very steep and in the middle part a lot of debris is created. Due to glacial erosion, the shape of the entire valley looks much like a deck chair without a handle. Such shaped valleys are called Cirque [Cirque] in French and Kum [Cumbe, Cwm] or Corrie in English. In the valley glacier source, erosion caused erosion. When three or four circuits pass side by side on different sides of a mountain, the steep mountain in the middle of them looks like a pyramid. Such a pyramidal peak, shaped like a pyramid, is called the Pyramidal Peak.

  • Examples: Matterhorn in the Alps Mountains and the Nilekantha and Shivling horns of the Himalayas near the Gangotri Pyramidal Peak are notable examples.

U -Shaped Valley: The U-shaped valley is one of the most common types of terrain created by glacial erosion. In the highlands, the glacier passes through the valley, where the glacier’s continuous sideways and downward slopes form the shape of the English ‘U’ letter, called the ‘U-Shaped Valley’ or glacier [Glacial trough]. Scientists are of the opinion that most glaciers form when glaciers flow through a river valley and simultaneous erosion of glaciers and rivers. Often, glaciers in the glacier cause the lake to freeze.

Roche Moutonne: Roche Moutonne is one of the types of earthworms created by glacial erosion. At times, glaciers flow over a hard rock like high mounds in the valley. As a result of glacier erosion, the rock is smooth towards the flow of glaciers and vice versa. Due to the erosion of the Hill Glacier, smooth rock formed on one side of the rock and on the other side such a rock or mound [Roche Moutonne]. The Ross Motan is a significant sign of glacial erosion in the hills.

Hanging Valley: The hanging valley [Hanging Valley] is one of the many landscapes that can be created by the erosion of the valley glaciers. Just as small tributaries merge with major rivers, small glaciers mix with major glaciers. The valley of the main glacier is very large and deep. So the valley of the small glacier hangs over the main glacier valley. Then it was called the Hanging Valley. The waterfall is often formed at the mouth of the hanging valley when glaciers are removed and rivers formed.

  • Examples: – Such hanging valley glaciers can be seen in the name of Kubera, below the mountains near Badrinath in the Indian Himalayas.

Crag and Tail: Crag & Tail is one of the most common types of terrain created by glacial erosion. If there is a soft rock behind the hard rock in the glacier, at times the hard rock protects the backward soft rock from the loss of the glacier. As a result, the solid rock lay like a high plateau and the soft rock behind it was like a narrow ledge. This type of solid rock is called Crag and the soft rock with a back slope is called Tail. The more the tail section moves away from the crag, the thinner it gets.



As a Result of Glacier Storage

Moraine: Moraine is one of the most common forms of glacier deposits. When glaciers flow through the mountainous regions, the decaying air flows along glaciers such as rocks, gravel, pebbles and sand. These isolated and decaying rocks or portions of the rock are deposited on both sides of the glacier, front and bottom. All these deposits are called Moraine.

Classification of Moraine: The Moraine line varies according to the location of the gravure, namely: –

(1) Lateral Moraine: The Moraine is one of the landscapes created by glacier storage. When glaciers flow through the mountainous regions, the decaying air flows along glaciers such as rocks, gravel, pebbles and sand. All of these isolated and eroded sediments are deposited on the glacier, on the front and bottom of the glacier. The collected rock is called the Grabrekha. Lateral moraine, called rock-mound, is deposited on the wall of a glacier, such as rock, rock, gravel, sand, etc.

(2) Terminal Moraine: The Moraine is one of the landscapes that are created by glacier storage. When glaciers flow through the mountainous regions, the decaying air flows along glaciers such as rocks, gravel, pebbles and sand. All of these isolated and eroded sediments are deposited on the glacier, on the front and bottom of the glacier. The collected rock is called the Moraine. Terminal moraine, called rock-mound, is deposited in front of glaciers, such as rock, rock, gravel, sand, etc.

(4) Medival Moraine: Moraine is one of the most common forms of glacier deposits. When glaciers flow through the mountainous regions, the decaying air flows along glaciers such as rocks, gravel, pebbles and sand. All of these isolated and eroded sediments are deposited on the glacier, on the front and bottom of the glacier. The collected rock is called the Grabrekha. If a rock is deposited on the wall of a glacier, such as rock, rock, gravel, sand, etc., it is called a side-gravel line. When two glaciers come from both sides and merge together, the two adjacent side-lobes of the two are combined, then called the Medival Moraine.

(5) Ground-Moraine: Ground moraine is one of the most common types of earthworms created by glacier storage. When glaciers flow through the mountainous regions, the decaying air flows along glaciers such as rocks, gravel, pebbles and sand. All of these isolated and eroded sediments are deposited on the glacier, on the front and bottom of the glacier. The collected rock is called the Grabrekha. Ground moraine is called rock-mound or rock-mound if it is stored on the floor of a glacier, such as rock, rock, gravel, sand, etc.

(6) Boundary Line: The moraine is one of the most common forms of glacier deposits. When glaciers flow through the mountainous regions, the decaying air flows along glaciers such as rocks, gravel, pebbles and sand. All of these isolated and eroded sediments are deposited on the glacier, on the front and bottom of the glacier. The collected rock is called the Grabrekha. Rocks or rocks, clumps, pebbles, sand, etc. are trapped in the glacier and accumulated in the stupa, creating a boundary-line.

  • Examples: Various types of gravures are seen in the Lachung and Lachen areas in the high basin of the Teesta River.

Drift]: The glaciers mainly cover the lower and lower ridges of the mountain. Glaciers do not store their carried objects such as gravel, stones, mud, sand, gravel, etc. in different parts, such as glaciers. Glaciers bring rocks of different shapes from the top together and store them in one place, together they are called drift.

(7) Aquatic or Erticics: Glaciers bring rocks of various shapes from above and deposit them together in one place, called a drift. The large rock fragments of the glacier do not have any morphological and natural resemblance to the regional rocks, so these glaciers are called the Erratics. This type of antitrust [Erratics] is observed in the high hills of Pahalgam in Kashmir.

(8) Boulder Clay: When the glacier melts, they are called Boulder Clay or Boulder Clay when they are deposited as sedimentary rocks of various shapes with sand and mud carried underneath the glacier.

(9) Drumlin: Drumlin is one of the landscapes created by glacier storage. When the glaciers melt, they are called boulder clays, together with sand and mud that are transported under the glacier, and deposited as gravel stones of various shapes. Stacked boulder clays often form in the form of linear mounds or small piles. On the surface of the surface, they look like overturned boats or spoons. The shape of this spoon is called a drumlin.

An ideal drumline is 2-3 km. It is 5-7 meters long and 5-7 meters high. In the case of the drumline, the glacier flow is smooth and the reverse is smooth. The drumlines are positioned parallel or horizontally or diagonally to where the glacier flows. In addition, the slopes of Drumlin are steep towards the glacier and gentle to the gorge.

Not a single drumlin is usually seen, usually, a drumline is seen in the jump. When several Drumlines are located together, the water in the degraded zones between them creates wetlands. Drumlins seem like ‘egg-filled baskets’ when viewed from many high-rises. Drumlin is therefore called a basin-shaped landscape, such as basket-filled eggs.

  • Examples: Many drumlins are found in places such as the United States, Northern England, Northern Ireland.

(10) Esker: One of the types of landscapes that are created as a result of glacier storage is Esker [esker]. At the base of the high hill, various types of pebbles, rocks, mud, sand, gravel, etc., which are carried by glaciers, form a long, curved, steep and narrow canyon. This type of rock is called the Upper Eskar.

(11) Kame: Kem is one of the most common forms of glacier deposits. Many times, where the glacier begins to melt at the end of the mountain glacier, mud, sand, gravel, stones, pebbles, etc. are deposited in stacked terracotta-like terrain, called the Kame. They form steps along the valley side. Chem is a classic example of a combination of glaciers and water bodies.

(12) Out-Wash-Plain: Out-Wash-Plain is one of those landscapes created by glacier storage or Out-Wash-Plain. When the glacier arrives at the foot of the high mountains, it forms a melting river and forms a wide plain that is deposited with glacier-bearing stones, gravel, pebbles, sand, mud, etc. It is called the Out-Wash Plain or the Out-Wash Plain.

(13) Ice Iceberg: When glaciers descend into the sea on the polar coast, huge ice pellets break in waves and float in the adjacent ocean. Icebergs are these huge icebergs floating in the sea. Only 5/5 parts of the iceberg float in the sea. Pushing with such a glacier, the Titanic ship sank deep into its first voyage.



For more information about Glacier Works and Classification: Wikipedia.org

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