Organic Compounds and Organic Chemistry:- Many years ago a single organism appeared on earth. Gradually, many plants, other animals and people came to earth. People from the distant past started to consume food items like rice, wheat, flour, milk, butter, alcohol etc. in their daily life. The source of these substances is plants or animals and they are all organic matter. So it was generally believed that organic compounds could only be obtained from the plant or animal world. Scientist Lavoisier analyzes many organic compounds and shows that all organic compounds contain carbon. In 1815, Barzelius distinguished organic and inorganic compounds by the theory of vitality and said that the production of organic compounds required the energy present in plants or animals. According to him, this energy is not man-made, so it is not possible to prepare organic compounds from inorganic compounds in the laboratory. Then by breaking this conventional idea, in 1828, the German Scientist Frederick Voeller prepared the first inorganic ammonium cyanate [NH4CNO] to produce organic compounds, urea [CO (NH2) 2], to produce biological compounds in the laboratory. Urea is a biological substance found in the urine of mammals. This discovery marks the beginning of a new era in organic chemistry.
NH4CNO → CO (NH2)2
So it can be said that the scientist Bhola is the father of modern biochemistry. Then in 1845, Scientists Discovered Kolbe, an organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, called acetic acid. In 1856, Scientist Bartholow prepared methane for the organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen. In this way, it is proved that organic compounds can be prepared without the vitality of an organism. As a result, the principle of life force was rejected. Every organic compound has carbon, but not all carbon compounds can be included in inorganic compounds.
The compounds of carbon that are mainly produced in organisms, and the compounds in which carbon atoms are linked to each other and to form a series of homogeneous compounds from circular chains, are called organic compounds as a whole, and those branches of chemistry in which these compounds are discussed. Either it is called Organic Chemistry.
B. Organic Compound
Organic Compound Definition: – Compounds formed by carbon are called organic compounds except for carbon oxide, metallic carbonate and bicarbonate, hydrogen cyanide, metallic cyanide salts. Carbon dioxide compounds such as carbon monoxide, metallic carbonate and bicarbonate, are not considered organic compounds. Therefore, according to the prevailing custom, they have been identified as inorganic compounds, and in the inorganic chemistry department, preparation of these compounds, religion, etc. has been discussed.
1. The Role of Organic Compounds in the Activity of Life
Most of the body parts of animals or plants composed of organic compounds. Therefore, the contribution of organic compounds to the organism is unparalleled. Organic compounds are deeply involved in life processes. The role of biomolecules is vital for the survival of the organism. The reason for every biological action in the organism is the action of the organic compound in the organism
[i] The Role of Organic Compounds in the Body’s Nourishment, Growth and Formation
The foods we take for nourishment, growth, formation and disease prevention can be mainly divided into three parts. They are all organic compounds.
- (a) Carbohydrate or Sugar: Substances like rice, wheat, potato, maize, sugar, glucose etc. These foods mix with blood in the body and add nutrients and energy.
- (b) The National Substance of Affection: Affectionate substances like oil, butter, ghee. They add heat and energy to the body.
- (c) Amount of Protein or Protein: Animal protein, such as fish, meat, eggs and vegetable protein like lentils, mugs, legumes, soybeans. These proteins are humidified and produce amino acids which help in the formation of our bodies and the regeneration of damaged cells. In addition, the vitamins we take from vegetables are also organic compounds. This vitamin helps our body prevent disease and keep our body fresh.
[ii] The Role of Biomolecules in Chemical Changes in the Body
The enzymes play an important role in the chemical changes in the body. These enzymes are organic compounds. They act as catalysts.
[iii] Hemoglobin is an Organic Compound
Haemoglobin is a Protein Organic Substance. Which carries oxygen to the vertebrates.
[iv] The role of Biomolecules in the Movement and Movement of Organisms
The energy required to move an organism and the muscles of the body is stored in the body as adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) in the body.
[v] The Role of Organic Compounds in Animal Lifestyle and Breeding
D-OxyRibo Nucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribo Nucleic Acid (RNA) help to maintain the organism’s lifestyle or lineage. These are all complex organic compounds.
[vi] Hormone is an Organic Substance
A hormone is a biological substance, which causes the body’s normal growth.
[vii] The Role of Organic Compounds in Curing Diseases
Various organic compounds are used to cure diseases. Such as; Quinine is used in malaria, penicillin in pneumonia, streptomycin in tuberculosis, chloromycetin in typhoid etc. Anaesthetic substances, such as chloroform, ether, have made surgery difficult.
[viii] Various organic compounds used in human Daily Life
The invention of soap, various cosmetics and dyes, synthetic silk, nylon, terylene, etc. in human relaxation. Besides, organic compounds such as gasoline, kerosene, diesel, natural gas and fuel are also creating civilization in civilization.
Bonding in Organic Compounds-Difference from Inorganic Compounds
Atomic Number 6 of carbon, the electronic structure of carbon, shows that there are 2 electrons in the first cell and 4 in the outer cell. The carbon atom produces 4 electrons in the outer cell, four electrons paired with the electrons in the outer cell, producing the organic compound by symmetry.
For Example, Methane: The simplest compound is Organic Methane. The signal for the compound is CH4. Here, the electrons are joined with four (4) hydrogen atoms in the innermost cell of the carbon atom.
Its structure is
Carbon atoms do not produce ionic compounds. The carbon-carbon bond is very strong. Many carbon atoms can bind to bond with each other and produce long carbon chains. Carbon
This religion, called the atoms themselves, is called carbon catenation.
Catenation: – The religion for which carbon atoms form interconnected bonds with interconnected bonds (one-bond, two-bond, three-bonding) is called catenation, that particular religion of carbon atom.
Multiple carbon atoms can form different organic compounds by interconnecting with one-bond (-), two-bond (=) or tri-bond.
[i] One-bond (-): – For example, in a Methane Molecule
And Ethyl Alcohol in the same form
[ii] Double Bond (=): – As the Ethylene Molecule is shown to have double bonds, that is, there is a double bond between the carbon and carbon atoms.
[iii] Triple Bond: – As acetylene molecule, tri-bonding, ie, tri-bonding between carbon and carbon atoms has occurred. H – C ≡ C – H But the bond between inorganic compounds can be both ionic and conjugate. Inorganic compounds are usually associated by ionic bonding: eg NaCl, KCl, MgBr2, CaCl2. But there are some inorganic compounds that are linked by affinity but use as ionic compounds: eg NH3, HCl, H2O, CO2, etc.
Difference Between Organic and Inorganic Compounds
|Organic compounds||Inorganic compounds|
|All organic compounds contain carbon in the molecule. Such as: CH4, C2H3OH, etc.||Inorganic molecules may or may not contain carbon. Inorganic compounds can be composed of all sorts of elements. Such as: NH3, CO2, etc.|
|Organic compounds are made up of compounds. Thus, the organic compounds are compatible: eg: methane, ethane, propane, acetylene ethylene, benzene, methyl alcohol, vinegar and so on.||Inorganic compounds are generally bound by electromagnetic bonding: eg, sodium chloride, calcium oxide, calcium chloride, and so on. Inorganic compounds can be electrochemical and can be synthesized.|
|Synthetic bonding slows the reaction of organic compounds.||Inorganic reactions are accelerated due to ionic bonding.|
|Generally, the melting point and boiling point of organic compounds are relatively lower than inorganic compounds, their volatility is also higher.||Inorganic compound melting point and boiling point are much higher than organic compounds. These are usually predictable.|
|The characteristic index is color and odor.||Colorless and odorless.|
|Organic compounds often participate in polymerization reactions. Most of our daily use materials are organic polymers. Such as rice, flour, potatoes, paper cloths, plastics, etc.||Polymerization reactions are very rare in inorganic compounds.|
|For the catenation of carbon atoms, carbon atoms of organic compounds can be linked to each other to produce more molecularly important compounds by forming longer carbon chains.||The molecular structure of the inorganic compound is relatively simple and the molecular importance is lower than that of the organic compound.|
|The sale of organic compounds results in the production of molecules of greater molecular importance.||Molecular coupling reactions are usually not observed in inorganic compounds.|
Primary Classification of Organic Compounds
Elementary Classification: – Organic compounds can be classified into different classes based on functional factors. Namely:  Hydrocarbons,  Alcohols,  Aldehydes,  Ketones  Carboxylic acid compounds. Below are the names and composition of several classes of organic compounds and the first three members of each class.
 Hydrocarbons:- Organic compounds made up of only carbon and hydrogen atoms are called hydrocarbons. Namely: Methane [CH4], Ethane [C2H6], Ethylene [C2H4], Acetylene [C2H2] etc. Organic compounds in which the carbon atoms of the ends are free are called free chains. For example, propane is a free chain organic compound: CH3CH2CH3 propane (free chain compound) is the only free chain organic compound discussed here.
Free chain hydrocarbons can be divided into two parts: [i] Saturated Hydrocarbons and [ii] Unsaturated hydrocarbons.
- [i] Saturated Hydrocarbons:-Free chain organic compounds consisting of only carbon or hydrogen, which contain only carbon-carbon one-bond (C – C) and/or Carbon-Hydrogen one-bond (C – H), are called free-chain saturated hydrocarbons or paraffin. The word ‘ane’ is appended to the end of their name, they are called alkanes. Their common signal is CnH2n + 2 (where ‘n’ is the number of carbon atoms). Namely: Methane [CH4], Ethane [C2H6], Propane [C3H8]
The Structural Equilibrium of Organic Compounds
Isomerism: – Associated with the same molecular signal, but is a separate structure, and prevailing in multiple organic compounds. This phenomenon is called isomerism and such compounds are called isomerism.
Constitutional Isomerism: – In spite of the two compounds of the same molecular signals to form different kinds of signals [Structural Formula], the physical and chemical properties of various kinds in the Isomerism compounds can be seen, the structure of the events that Isomerism. Structural equilibrium is of three types namely: (a) Chaotic equilibrium (b) Stationar equilibrium (c) Functional equilibrium.
(A) Chain Township, Martin Isomerism: – Carbon-chain organic compounds that Isomerism for the creation of diversity, that is Chain Isomerism. For example, two different structural compounds are available from the C4H10 signal.
(B) Positional Isomerism:- The equilibrium that arises for a different position on an atom or substitute for an organic compound containing the same carbon chain is called a stochastic equilibrium.
(B) Functional group Isomerism:- The co-occurrence of multiple organisms with the same molecular signal for the presence of different functional components is called Functional group Isomerism.
For example, C2H6O, which is produced in bonds made by carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, is the molecular signal of a compound by that atom. The compound is again structured differently and forms two compounds: the first one is C2H5OH (The Functional –OH) and the second is CH3 – O – CH3 (Functional -OH). The weight ratio of C, H and O is the same as the material in these two compounds but they are compounds of different nature. One is alcohol that is soluble in water and the other is not soluble in ether water.
What is Alkane ?
The hydrocarbon’s carbon atoms are linked together by only one bond, called Alkanes. Their formation consists of only carbon-carbon bonds (C – C) and/or carbon-hydrogen bonds (C – H). Alkanes are composed of free chain compounds made up of carbon and hydrogen and their alkane molecules. The common signal for alkanes is CnH2n + 2 (Where n is a positive integer). If n = 1, then CH4 (Methane). If n = 2, then ethane (C2H6). Again if n = 3, then propane (C3H8).
- Methane: The first civilization of the alkene class is methane [CH4]. The simplest compound of all organic compounds is methane. In 1856, the Scientist Barthello first developed a biological compound called methane from carbon and hydrogen in the laboratory
- Source: Methane is produced as a result of bacterial depletion of organic compounds (Cellulose Derived from Plants) in closed wetlands. This gas is known as marsh gas. Bubbling methane gas can be seen emerging while sitting on the edge of the pond. Natural gas contains a large amount of methane, which is the cause of the explosion in coal. Petroleum mining contains about 85% of methane in natural gas. Methane is produced when heated by mixing sodium with dry sodium acetate in the laboratory. The reaction is: CH3COONa + NaOH = CH4। + Na2CO3
(i) Will-O-the-wisp:-Methane is produced by bacterial dissociation of plant organic matter in closed wetlands, while in many cases phosphine [PH3], Dio-phosphorus tetrahydride [P2H4], is produced in the wetlands. Therefore, the methane produced in the aquifer is often mixed with phosphine and d-phosphorus tetrahydride [P2H4]. [P2H4] burns spontaneously in the air. The heat generated by the combustion of Dio-phosphorus tetrahydride [P2H4] in the air helps to ignite methane in flames. As a result, the moving light is called Alaya [Will-O-the Wisp]. Therefore, it is often seen in closed wetlands or crematoriums. Alea is not a physical phenomenon, it is a natural phenomenon.
[ii] The main source of methane is natural gas, which contains about 45 – 96% of the methane content. Natural gas is available from oil wells.
[iii] The gas found in the coal mines contains methane and is very flammable which causes the coal mine to explode.
[iv] Coal gas also contains about 32-50% Methane.
Uses of Methane:
[i] Methane is used as fuel. About 213 kilocalories of heat is generated per methane per litre of methane gas.
[ii] Incomplete combustion of methane results in carbon black. This carbon is used for black pants and printing ink preparation, shoe ink preparation, carbon paper, type writer’s lace and rubber industry, for motor vehicle wheels.
[iii] Methane is produced from many chemical substances, such as methyl alcohol, methyl chloride, chloroform, methylene chloride, formaldehyde, methanol, acetylene.
[iv] Hydrogen gas is manufactured in an industrial manner using methane. Hydrogen is thus available for the synthesis of ammonia.
In addition to heat production, methane is currently used as a source of many important substances.
Chemical Properties of Methane
[A] Burning in oxygen: Methane does not help in the combustion of others but itself is combustible. Methane ignited in air or oxygen burns flame and produces carbon dioxide and water. Coal Gas contains methane. So the coal mine occasionally exploded. Methane combustion produces a lot of heat, so methane is used as fuel.
[B] Substitution Reaction of Methane: Alkane radicals are a free chain compound. A key feature of saturated organic compounds is to participate in transplantation reactions. Shattered sunlight reacts to methane replacement with chlorine. The hydrogen atoms of methane are replaced by chlorine one by one and gradually produce methyl chloride, methylene chloride, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Here’s the first step.
Mention that CH4 is a Greenhouse Gas: There are many gaseous substances on the surface that do not prevent the sun’s rays from falling to the earth. But the long wavelengths radiating from the heated surface prevent the uneven radiation from moving into space. The radiation of that long-wavelength absorbs those gases and keeps the atmosphere warm. But if the volume of those gases increases, the atmosphere’s heat will also increase. That extra dewy ray absorbed gases include methane, which can increase the temperature of the atmosphere. In a word, Global Warming occurs. That is why methane gas is called Green-House Gas. The methane [CH4] is located immediately after carbon dioxide in the greenhouse effect. Methane contributes 15-20 per cent to the greenhouse effect in the atmosphere. The capacity to withstand the heat of methane per molecule is 25 times greater than the capacity of CO2. India’s contribution is 14% of the total amount of methane released into the Earth’s atmosphere.
What is Alkene ?
Hydrocarbons that have a carbon-carbon bi-bond (> C = C <) for less, are called alkene. These compounds combine with hydrogen to produce alkanes. Alkenes are known as unsaturated hydrocarbons for having fewer hydrogen atoms than the maximum number of hydrogen atoms in a free chain compound composed of carbon and hydrogen. The common signal for compounds in this class is CnH2n, where ‘n’ is a positive integer. Ethylene is considered [C2H4] as the first civilization of this class.
Source of Ethylene :
[i] Coal gas contains ethylene [Ethylene] about 6% (by volume).
[ii] Natural gas also contains Ethylene.
[iii] In the oil refinery, there is a large amount of ethylene available as a byproduct during the production of high-quality oil in the process of heat exchanging of petroleum (Petroleum cracking).
[iv] The raw material also contains very little ethylene.
[v] Ethylene is produced when heated to 170 ° C in a sulfuric acid mixed with ethyl alcohol in the laboratory. The reaction is: C2H5OH + H2SO4 = C2H4 ↑ + H2O + [H2SO4].
Use of Ethylene:
[i] Ethylene is used in artificial ways to ripen raw fruits and preserve fruits.
[ii] Ethylene is used as an anesthetic in surgical treatment.
[iii] Ethylene is used in the production of various plastics such as polyethene or polyethene, polystyrene.
[iv] Ethylene is used in the preparation of various solvents such as glycol, dioxane and so on.
[v] Ethylene is used in the preparation of ethyl alcohol.
[vi] Ethylene is used in the preparation of synthetic rubber and poisonous master gas during the war.
Addition Reaction: Reaction is the reaction in which a molecule of a compound is directly linked to another substance and no part of the molecule is broken. The compound produced by the sale is called the additive compound. Such as Ethylene takes hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst and under pressure, and heat is generated in the reaction. The reaction takes place in the ordinary heat for the catalyst of fine particles of Pt or Pd metals, but in the case of nickel catalysts, the reaction takes place at -300 ° C.
Addition Reaction with Bromine: Ethylene reacts with red-coloured bromine dissolved in carbon tetrachloride or chloroform to produce colourless ethylene Die-Bromide.
What is Alkyne ?
Hydrocarbons contain one or more carbon-carbon tri-bonds (- C ≡ C -), called Alkenes. These are unsaturated organic compounds. These molecules combine with hydrogen first to form an alkene and later another molecule to form an alkene molecule with hydrogen. The common signal for the compounds of this class is CnH2n-2, where n is the positive integer. Acetylene (C2H2) is their representative compound. Molecular importance of acetylene 26. The structural signal is H – C ≡ C – H. In 1865, Scientist Edmund Dewey discovered Acetylene Gas.
Source of Acetylene:
[i] Acetylene gas is prepared in the laboratory for the reaction of water with calcium carbide (CaC2) under normal heating. The reaction is: CaC2 + 2H2O = Ca (OH) 2 + C2H2 ↑.
[ii] Another source of this gas is methane. Acetylene gas is prepared by partial combustion of methane gas (In heat dissipation or thermal cracking) at high temperatures. Namely- 2CH4 = C2H2 + 3H2.
[iii] Acetylene is not available in nature free of charge. Coal gas contains a small amount (about 0.01%) of acetylene.
[iv] At normal air pressure, the petroleum mining natural gas (85% methane in the natural gas of petroleum mining) is heated to about 1500 ° C and cooled to methane acetylene. Thus, acetylene products are currently manufactured.
Use of Acetylene:
[i] Acetylene is used in the formation of oxy-acetylene flame (At temperatures above 3000°C), to attach steel mills or to attach and cut other metals (for electric welding or welding).
[ii] Acetylene is also used to produce bright light in carbide lamps.
[iii] Acetylene is used to make compounds such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid, ethyl alcohol.
[iv] Insoluble solvents (such as oil, fat and resin solvents) are produced from acetylene, such as Westron and Westeros.
[v] Acetylene is the primary substance used in the production of synthetic rubber, plastic, and synthetic fibres.
Addition Reaction: – Additive reaction is a characteristic reaction of alkynes. The additive reaction of acetylene and ethylene is essentially the same, with only twice the amount of acetylene per mole that can be added to it.
[i] Hydrogen [H2] Attachment: Acetylene, in the presence of catalysts such as heated nickel, platinum and palladium, is converted to ethylene in the first step and ethane in the next step.
The acetylene is converted to ethylene by partial hydrogenation. The Lindler catalyst is a finely powdered catalyst of palladium-based palladium-catalyzed on CaCO3, partially inactivated by lead acetate. The hydrogenation reaction of acetylene can be restricted to the ethylene phase in the presence of the Lindler catalyst.
Addition Reaction with Bromine: In the absence of gaseous bromine or solvent with acetylene, acetylene produces acetylene tetrabromide by taking acetylene 2-molecule bromine in the reaction of liquid bromine. In this reaction, the red colour of the bromine becomes colourless.
Polymerization and Some Common Polymers
The reaction in which a large number of molecules with different religions and high molecular masses (20,000 – 250,000) are formed as a result of the interaction of many small and simple molecules is called polymerization reaction. In that reaction, Macromolecule is called a polymer. The word polymer comes from the Greek language. Poly (Greek Polus) means ‘many’ and mer-meros means ‘part’. Again the simplest small molecules that make up large polymers are called monomers.
Some polymers are available from nature. Important polymers obtained from plants and animals are starch, protein, RNA, DNA, Rubber, Silk, Fur, Cellulose, etc. Artificially Produced Polymers are – Nylon, Teflon, PVC and so on.
Addition Polymer: Under certain conditions, when a molecule of a substance is formed by the polymerization of a compound with high molecular mass, but there is no variation of mass before and after the sale, it is called additive polymer reaction.
Some Common Polymers and their Uses
(1)Polyethene: When heated ethylene at high pressure to 200 ° C – 300 ° C in the presence of little oxygen, a large number of ethylene molecules are attached and produce poly-ethylene or polyethene of high molecular importance.
The monomer of polythene is ethylene [H2C = CH2] and the polymer is polyethene (-H2C – CH2 -) n.
- Use: Polyethylene is widely used in the manufacture of bottles, jerkins, drums, detergents, pots used in the laboratory, seats for film and house enclosures, electrical cables and cable insulators, various types of pipes, etc.
(2) Teflon: Teflon’s polymer is polytetrafluoroethylene (- F2C – CF2) n. Its monomer is tetrafluoroethylene [F2C = CF2].
- Use: This polymer is chemically inert because Teflon is used in the manufacture of bottles containing chemicals and in the manufacture of chemicals, lining in cooking utensils, preparation of gasket valves, etc.
(3) Polyvinyl Chloride -PVC: Its monomer is vinyl chloride [H2C = CHCl]. It is a gaseous substance, with a boiling point of 14°C.
- Use: PVC is used in the preparation of water and gas distribution pipes. PVC is widely used in the production of phonograph records, metal cables and cables. PVC is used to create raincoat coats, gumboots, window curtains to hide from rainstorms, and hose pipes to provide garden and groundwater. Door-window frames, floor tiles, etc. are also made from PVC.
Problems and Controls for the Use of Synthetic Polymers
Problem of Using Synthetic Polymers
The use of synthetic polymer materials is increasing at an unprecedented rate. Bags and plastic bags and other products made of polythene and Teflon have become an essential item in our daily lives. Plastic is a contaminant that has long remained untouched in nature, is not decomposed, and is not (non-biodegradable) present in nature by bacteria and fungus. When inaccessible for use, plastic products are discarded as waste products by users. As a result, the sewers are filled with plastic material and the dirty water and material cannot be drained.
As a result, the surrounding areas are flooded with dirty water and contaminated pure water of the reservoir by mixing dirty water with drinking water sources in the area and increasing the incidence of bowel and various diseases. Floods and flies in closed and dirty waters and various types of harmful insects are growing rapidly.
All these insects and mosquitoes are spreading various diseases, such as malaria, gum, typhoid and cholera, in the locality, causing people and livestock to become deadly and causing premature death. Plastic dumped into the reservoir is deposited in the reservoir.
Aquatic fish and animals can eat plastic pieces and because they are constantly stored in their stomachs, they cannot eat anything. They die of hunger and lack of food, disrupting their normal growth. Animals that receive food from those dead fish and aquatic animals are also subject to plastic contamination. Plastic pieces scattered on the road, in the field, and elsewhere cause unclean and malicious weather. Plants are not able to receive aquatic food from the soil simply because of the plastic stored under the soil, which also disrupts normal production in agriculture.
Possible Remedial Measures and Alternatives
[i] Polyethylene and plastics and other materials containing polymers are not decomposed, so waste polyethene and plastics and other materials need to be burned at high temperatures. This process needs to be done systematically without being arbitrary, as it again pollutes the environment.
[ii] Various types of materials need to be recycled from the waste material to be reused in a rotating manner, thus reducing the pollution caused by plastic.
[iii] The household should try to make garbage less productive. It should be the duty of every citizen to practice garbage in certain places.
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